Mesothelioma Law Resources Mesothelioma is a deadliest form of cancer that has developed via the exposure of asbestos. Mesothelioma develops the malignant or cancerous cells in the mesothelium, which is the cell which protects various internal organs in our human body. The types of mesothelioma are pleural mesothelioma, peritoneal mesothelioma and pericardial mesothelioma. The mesothelioma law resources provide you information on the disease, mesothelioma lawsuits, mesothelioma doctors, and mesothelioma lawyers and other legal resources. Mesothelioma law resources help a person who has developed the disease in the exposure of asbestos providing the legal resources and further steps for the mesothelioma settlements. Mesothelioma is the disease that damages the cells which surround various internal organs like the heart, lungs and the abdomen. It develops gradually within the human body by damaging the cell lining which covers these organs. Inhaling the asbestos materials from the workplace is a major cause for the development of mesothelioma. Shortness of breath and chest pain developed due to the accumulated fluid in the pleura are the major symptoms of pleural mesothelioma. Bowel obstruction, abnormality in the clotting of blood, fever and anemia are few of the peritoneal symptoms. The common symptoms of the pericardial mesothelioma are persistent coughing, palpitations, shortness of breath and chest pain. The person who has developed mesothelioma has to be diagnosed immediately when these symptoms are seen. If the presence of mesothelioma is confirmed, immediate treatment is recommended. The person may seek lawsuit assistance as the legal compensation for the mesothelioma through the exposure of asbestos. A legal medical expert can help you in providing the information of the disease that has developed through the exposure of asbestos. This would help you in receiving rightful and fair compensation. There are several law firms that offer you the best service. One has to assess whether the law firm to be selected is a good one and certified applicable under the State Bar Association. A perfect lawyer can be approached from any top law firm who has a well specialized track record in dealing with mesothelioma cases. A lawyer with a good track record can offer you with the best compensation for mesothelioma from the irresponsible firms that have failed to protect you from the exposure of asbestos. Mesothelioma Laws [http://www.e-mesotheliomalaws.com] provides detailed information on Mesothelioma Diagnosis, Mesothelioma Law Firms, Mesothelioma Law Resources, Mesothelioma Law Services and more. Mesothelioma Laws is affiliated with Failure To Diagnose Mesothelioma Lawsuits [http://www.e-mesotheliomalawsuits.com]. 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Kamis, 17 Mei 2018

Zeti Akhtar Aziz, Ekonom Perempuan Malaysia ‘Anti-tesis’ Sri Mulyani

Zeti Akhtar Aziz, Ekonom Perempuan Malaysia ‘Anti-tesis’ Sri Mulyani
Zeti Akhtar Aziz, Ekonom Perempuan Malaysia ‘Anti-tesis’ Sri Mulyani

Berita Islam 24H - PERDANA Menteri Mahathir Mohamad beberapa waktu lalu mengumumkan suatu Dewan Penasehat, Council of Elders, yang terdiri dari Taipan, Mantan Menteri Keuangan, Mantan Dirut Petronas, dan seorang mantan Gubernur Bank Sentral.

Mahathir mengatakan tugas dari dewan adalah mengawasi perekonomian Malaysia yang tengah berjalan agar tetap dalam koridor: memacu pertumbuhan, mengurangi utang, dan bersahabat dengan investasi. Satu-satunya perempuan dalam dewan penasehat tersebut adalah Dr. Zeti Akthar Aziz, sang mantan Gubernur Bank Sentral Malaysia.

Zeti jelas bukan makroekonomis yang biasa.Ia adalah seorang mantan Gubernur Bank Sentral yang menjabat selama 16 tahun, sejak masa pemerintahan Mahathir yang pertama. Ketika tahun 1998, tepat pada saat Malaysia berada di tengah pusaran Krisis Keuangan Asia 1997-1998, ia menjabat sebagai pelaksana tugas (acting) Gubernur Bank Sentral yang juga ketua tim kebijakan capital controlled, sekaligus Deputi Gubernur Bank Sentral.

Zeti adalah ekonom perempuan yang memimpin perekonomian Malaysia mengambil jalan yang berbeda dari doktrin IMF. Dan ia berhasil membawa Malaysia melalui krisis ekonomi terburuk dalam sejarah Asia tersebut.

Saat itu di tahun 1997-1998, IMF menginginkan agar negara-negara pasiennya di Asia Tenggara, seperti Indonesia dan Thailand, memberlakukan rezim kapital bebas, kurs mata uang mengambang, dan suku bunga tinggi (pengetatan moneter).

Zeti malah memberlakukan hal sebaliknya di Malaysia. Ia kemudian menerapkan apa yang disebut sebagai rezim kapital terkendali (capital controlled), kurs mata uang tetap (pegged), dan suku bunga rendah. Kendali kapital hanya diberlakukan selama setahun, sementara kurs tetap diterapkan hingga tahun 2005 di Malaysia.

Pendukung IMF, seperti Prof. Steve Hanke dari John Hopkins University menyebut dalam sebuah artikel di majalah Forbes, “Malaysia, telah membuang jauh-jauh pelajaran (ekonomi) dari setengah abad terakhir”.

Steve Hanke menyitir kata-kata dari Friedrich Hayek’s, Bapak Ekonomi Neoliberal, yang menyatakan bahwa karakterisasi dari kendali pertukaran (kapital) sebagai “langkah pasti menuju jalan totalitarianisme dan penindasan akhir dari segala cara untuk bebas”.

Tapi Zeti memiliki alasan mengapa ia menolak pendekatan model IMF, yang disebutnya sebagai “ortodoks dan konservatif”, dan malah melakukan pendekatan yang bertolak belakang. Jawabannya Zeti sederhana, “untuk mencegah kehancuran (ekonomi)”.

Dalam sebuah wawancara dengan majalah Wharton, Zeti menyimpulkan situasi tersebut, “Mungkin tantangannya adalah ketika menyimpang dari pendekatan kebijakan yang ortodoks dan konvensional dalam mengatur sistem ekonomi dan keuangan, khususnya dalam suatu krisis atau ketika mengambil inisiatif yang melibatkan pemecahan landasan baru.”

Perekonomian Malaysia pun sukses melalui Krisis Keuangan Asia 1997-1998 tanpa tergores sedikit pun. Joseph Stiglitz, peraih penghargaan Nobel Ekonomi, sampai memuji Zeti sebagai "suatu contoh utama dari institusi yang bagus dan seseorang yang dari dirinya seluruh dunia dapat belajar banyak hal”.

Selama menjadi Gubernur Bank Sentral (2000-2015), Zeti memainkan peran utama dalam mempromosikan inklusi keuangan bagi seluruh lapisan masyarakat Malaysia. Sehingga pada tahun 2020 yang tinggal dua tahun lagi, Malaysia akan masuk ke kelompok negara berpendapatan tinggi (GDP Percapita di atas USD 10ribu).

Pada masanya juga, Malaysia pada tahun 2009 memiliki terobosan sebuah undang-undang baru tentang Bank Sentral (Malaysia’s Central Banking Act), yang memastikan setiap proses pengambilan kebijakan Bank Sentral dapat lebih demokratis, transparan dan jelas sehingga menghindarkan penyalahgunaan wewenang.

Dalam undang-undang ini diatur tujuan Bank Sentral adalah “stabilitas moneter dan stabilitas keuangan yang kondusif untuk pertumbuhan yang berkelanjutan” dari perekonomian Malaysia. Istilah “pertumbuhan yang berkelanjutan” memberikan Bank Sentral keleluasaan melakukan interpretasi stabilitas harga secara lebih luas.

Di sini terlihat Zeti berbeda pendekatan dari ekonom konvensional yang hanya melulu menjaga agar inflasi rendah, tanpa mempedulikan dampaknya yang memperlambat pertumbuhan ekonomi.

Dari pemaparan tentang Zeti Akhtar Aziz, kita dapat menangkap perbedaan yang kontras antara dirinya dengan sesama ekonom perempuan dari Indonesia, Sri Mulyani. Zeti lebih merupakan anti-tesis Sri Mulyani. Bila Zeti menolak pendekatan IMF terhadap perekonomian Malaysia, Sri Mulyani sejak dahulu hingga kini masih bangga sebagai promotor IMF di Indonesia.

Bila Zeti dalam 18 tahun kiprahnya (2 tahun plt Gubernur Bank Sentral & 16 tahun Gubernur Bank Sentral) sukses membawa pendapatan perkapita masyarakat Malaysia mencapai USD 10 ribu di 2020, setara negara maju, Sri Mulyani dalam 8 tahun kiprahnya (5 tahun Menkeu era SBY & 2 tahun Menkeu era Jokowi) dapat membawa pendapatan perkapita masyarakat Indonesia ke USD 10 ribu baru pada tahun 2042 nanti, atau 22 tahun lebih lambat dari Malaysia.

Bila Zeti berhasil membuat terobosan inklusi finansial dan UU Reformasi Bank Sentral di Malaysia, Reformasi yang dilakukan Sri Mulyani di Kementerian Keuangan Indonesia, yang digembar-gemborkan dahulu sejak zaman SBY, telah gagal karena kini pegawai Kemenkeu tetap saja korup.

OLEH: GEDE SANDRA

Penulis adalah peneliti ekonomi politik di Lingkar Studi Perjuangan [b-islam24h.com / rmol]
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