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Bantuan Langsung Lempar Dan Kepemimpinan Transaksional Jokowi

Bantuan Langsung Lempar Dan Kepemimpinan Transaksional Jokowi
Bantuan Langsung Lempar Dan Kepemimpinan Transaksional Jokowi

Berita Islam 24H - Akhir-akhir ini beredar viral di media sosial tentang perilaku Presiden Jokowi yang membagi-bagikan hadiah dari mobil kepresidenan. Nampak Jokowi membuka kaca mobil yang sedang berjalan, dan melemparkan beberapa bungkusan kepada masyarakat biasa yang mengejarnya.

Pro kontra yang muncul berkisar pada aspek etika seorang presiden memperlakukan rakyat biasa, yang nampak dalam video sebagai masyarakat kelas ekonomi bawah. Tetapi, fenomena perilaku ini juga dapat dijelaskan dalam teori kepemimpinan.

Transactional Leadership (TSL) diperkenalkan oleh Max Weber (1947) dan diangkat lagi oleh Bernard Bass (1947) ketika ia menggunakannya sebagai antitesa Transformational Leadership (TFL). Konsep dasar TSL adalah pemimpin menggunakan power yang bersumber dari otoritas formal, untuk memotivasi dan mengarahkan rakyat melalui sistem reward dan punishment. Tujuannya adalah rakyat harus mematuhi instruksi pemimpin. Asumsi yang digunakan oleh pemimpin adalah rakyat dapat dimotivasi melalui hadiah yang sederhana.

Implikasi dalam praktek kepemimpinan, TSL lebih cocok digunakan untuk mencapai tujuan-tujuan jangka pendek, tidak mengupayakan pengembangan kreativitas dan melahirkan ide-ide baru dari rakyat. Dengan demikian, TSL dipandang mungkin efektif di mana persoalan-persoalan yang dihadapi negara sangat sederhana.

TSL banyak diterapkan untuk menciptakan efisiensi dan meningkatkan produktifitas di mana pemimpin bertindak responsif dan menggunakan skala tinggi dalam pengarahan. TSL juga disebut sebagai managerial leadership karena fokus pada intensitas interaksi pemimpin dan rakyat.

Berbeda dengan TFL, di mana pemimpin bertindak proaktif dan memiliki visi yang kuat dan memotivasi rakyat melalui ide-ide baru dan penerapan standar nilai moral yang tinggi. TFL cocok untuk situasi di mana persoalan-persoalan negara sangat kompleks, di mana pemimpin memberi ruang yang luas kepada rakyat untuk memberikan solusi permasalahan dan kreativitas.

Dengan demikian, masukan dan usulan rakyat mendapatkan porsi yang penting dalam TFL. Pemimpin tranformasional yang visioner, menjadi inspirasi bagi rakyat, berani, pengambil resiko dan pemikir yang bijaksana.

Bass dan Avolio (1990) kemudian mempertajam konsep TSL. Pemimpin transformasional menghasilkan kesadaran dan penerimaan rakyat terhadap tujuan bersama, bukan tujuan pemimpin semata. Dengan demikian, fokus kepemimpinan transformasional adalah proses membangun komitmen terhadap tujuan bersama dan kemudian memberdayakan rakyat untuk mencapai tujuan tersebut (Yukl, 1998).

Secara prinsip TFL lebih mengedepankan motivasi rakyat yang didasari pada perilaku pemimpin di mana perilaku ini menjadi inspirasi bagi rakyat, merangsang perilaku intelektual masyarakat, mempengaruhi masyarakat dengan ide-ide dan visi, dan mengutamakan pertimbangan-pertimbangan masyarakat (Avolio, Waldman, danYammarino, 1991).

Dari teori TSL dan TFL, jelas bahwa perilaku Jokowi lebih cenderung transaksional. Selain melempar hadiah dari mobil kepresidenan, Jokowi juga gemar bagi-bagi hadiah sepeda. Jokowi nampaknya ingin menampilkan kecintaan rakyat dan sangat menikmati kegembiraan rakyat saat mengejar hadiah yang dilempar.

Perilaku ini tidak inspiratif dan bukan contoh yang fundamental dari Revolusi Mental yang digembar-gemborkan Jokowi. Perilaku bagi-bagi sertifikat tanah kepada masyarakat pedesaan dengan target jumlah yang bombastis juga tidak merubah fundamental reformasi agraria, tetapi terkesan lebih kepada klaim capain Jokowi. Perilaku ini secara struktural tidak memberi perubahan apapun selain kepentingan jangka pendek untuk menjaga elektabilitas menjelang Pilpres 2019.

Banyak pemimpin transaksional yang berupaya tampil seperti pemimpin transformasional. Mereka memang sukses mendapatkan pengikut dan mencitrakan kharisma diri, tetapi ini hanya bersifat jangka pendek dan di dalam jangka panjang akan menjadi bumerang. Inilah yang disebut pemimpin pseudo-transformational (Bass, 1999). Pemimpin seperti ini seringkali memanipulasi ambisi pribadi menjadi seakan-akan visi bersama. Pemimpin seperti Adolf Hitler dan Mao Zedong adalah contohnya. Kepemimpinan mereka dipenuhi oleh banyaknya pelanggaran atas kepercayaan yang telah diberikan rakyat, tindakan tidak bermoral, kurangnya karakter baik atau kombinasi dari semuanya.

Dari sini, rakyat bisa menilai apakah Jokowi seorang pemimpin pseudo-transformational atau bukan. Masalahnya, saat negara sedang menghadapi persoalan-persoalan yang kompleks, rakyat membutuhkan pemimpin transformasional yang otentik, yang dengan visi yang kuat dan perilakunya yang inspiratif mampu menggerakkan rakyat bersama-sama melakukan kerja kolektif untuk tujuan bersama. Intinya pemimpin yang mampu memainkan role-play dalan relasi-relasi ekonomi politik demi suatu perubahan struktural yang berarti.

Oleh Gde Siriana
Penulis adalah Direktur Eksekutif Local Governance Strategic Studies (LOGOSS)

[b-islam24h.com / rmol]
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